The simple answer is no, at least from a technical point of view. Google and other search engines reward you for posting new, unique and high quality content to your site on a frequent basis, but they don’t much care on exactly when you post or how regularly.
Having said that, it matters a lot from your own point of view and from that of your audience’s. Dealing with the latter of those first, if you want readers to keep coming back to your site, it’s important to post to a regular schedule, creating an expectation in your visitors’ minds. And once you set that expectation, don’t break it! If you promise a new post on 10am every Monday, make sure that it’s there. This is doubly important if you also share all your content to social media (as you should!)
From a personal point of view, sticking to a regular schedule is also a must if you don’t have something forcing you to publish (e.g. a boss breathing down your neck!) As people, it’s easy for “non-essential” activities to slip, especially if you are a business owner-operator or if you have pressing personal concerns, such as small children to look after. One late post can easily slip into a missed one, which can slip into two or three, and quickly your blog is on indefinite (i.e. permanent) hiatus – the fate of many blogs, business and otherwise, started with the best of intentions.
So, the short answer is that although sticking to a regular schedule doesn’t matter at all from a technical point of view, it matters from all others! It’s vital to make a schedule, make it public and stick to it.